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Scientific writing has two goals: to tell the reader of brand new developments in a field that is specific and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Scientific writing has two goals: to tell the reader of brand new developments in a field that is specific and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic writing research paper sample

  • Academic writing within the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most regularly in the form of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly proceed with the IMRAD model, which stands for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such as the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and a summary of the subsequent material.
  • The writer’s should be covered by the methods section assumptions, system model, simulation model, and gratification measures. For an original study, when, where, and how the research was conducted, what materials were utilized, and who was simply within the study groups should all be included.
  • The writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the research question, and state whether the research hypothesis was proven or not proven in describing the results.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcomes, state why they matter, contextualize them pertaining to existing research, and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: The ability to perceive a subject without having to be impacted by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion paper writer that is definite position on an interest.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation associated with the materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to answer questions and identify patterns. Writing within these disciplines often takes the form of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    For example, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research leads to address or clarify a certain scientific development or question:

    “This study is designed to identify levels of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch regarding the Columbia River, which is a place notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples taken over a period that is two-year various locations in the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high amounts of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. In the scholarly study, we examine the connection between salmon population additionally the persistence of those compounds.”

    Scientific papers require significant amounts of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing can be difficult, but academic conventions provide a template that is common communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing in the sciences seeks to spell out complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. Moreover it includes components of classical argument, since scientific papers are expected to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, as well as other forms of scientific writing must certanly be precise in order to provide results which can be tested and reproduced.

    Attempt to use simple words and sentences. Some students attempt to make their work sound more intellectual simply by using obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In reality, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions which can be still understandable to a lay audience. Don’t try to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted academic writing. Instead, write as simply and clearly as you are able to. Precision is a component that is key of.

    Into the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using clear language to describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is really important. Don’t generalize—provide times that are exact measurements, quantities, as well as other relevant data whenever possible. Using precise, straightforward language to spell it out your projects is also vital. This is simply not the right time or place for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, is still important: writing about the sciences does give you a n’t pass to publish sloppily.


    The sciences strive for objectivity at each stage, from the procedures that are experimental the language utilized in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; as a result, it has an argumentative character. Combining objectivity and writing that is argumentative be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis should be testable, as well as your results should be reproducible.

    The significance of objectivity in the sciences limits writers’ ability to use rhetoric that is persuasive. However, it’s still required to make a case that is strong the value, relevance, and applicability of the research. Argumentative writing does have a place in scientific papers, but its role is restricted. You may use language that is persuasive the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but avoid using it when you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students struggle to transition from 1 topic to a higher. Transitions are well worth mastering—they are the glue that holds your thinking together. Never assume that your reader will correctly guess the relationships between different subtopics; it is your responsibility to describe these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Keepin constantly your chosen model in your mind while you write can really help make sure that your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, look out for logic traps such as bias and faulty causality. Researchers must account fully for their own biases, or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These may include bias that is cognitive thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some members of the intended sample more readily than the others).

    Your body of a scientific paper generally consists of the next sections: introduction (which may include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each section of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model could be the conventional structural approach to academic writing into the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This may be included within the introduction, or it may stand as the own section.
    • The methods section should explain the method that you evaluated and collected important computer data.
    • In the event your project conducts an experiment or an original data analysis, you ought to include a different section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any new findings.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a paper that is scientific.
    • literature review: A synthesis associated with critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which includes significant findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or lack of discovery) that comes from the scientific approach to investigation.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that create a more understanding that is subjective studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    The format for the body of the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods in the natural and social sciences. Generally, the body associated with the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This process is named IMRAD for short.

    These sections are usually separate, although sometimes the results are combined with methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, as they are still learning the conventions of writing within their discipline. Most scientific journals prefer the IMRAD format, or variations from it, and also recommend that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    Make an effort to stay true to each section’s stated purpose. It is possible to cite relevant sources in the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the lengthy discussion of those sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcomes section should describe your results without discussing their significance, whilst the discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any new findings. Think about each section as a training course served at a fancy dinner—don’t pour the soup in to the salad or add leftover scraps through the entree to the dessert!